[Isoform 1]: Cell surface receptor that plays important roles in innate and adaptive immunity by amplifying inflammatory responses . Upon activation by various ligands such as PGLYRP1, HMGB1 or HSP70, multimerizes and forms a complex with transmembrane adapter TYROBP/DAP12 ). In turn, initiates a SYK-mediated cascade of tyrosine phosphorylation, activating multiple downstream mediators such as BTK, MAPK1, MAPK3 or phospholipase C-gamma. This cascade promotes the neutrophil- and macrophage-mediated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or chemokines, as well as their migration and thereby amplifies inflammatory responses that are triggered by bacterial and fungal infections. By also promoting the amplification of inflammatory signals that are initially triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor engagement, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of different etiologies including septic shock and atherosclerosis. [Isoform 2]: Acts as a decoy receptor, counterbalancing TREM1 pro-inflammatory activity through the neutralization of its lignad.